Kana | Partikels | Werkwoorden | Bijwoorden | Uitdrukkingen | Zinnen | Conversatie | Grammatica | Uitspraak |

3. Verbs (DOUSHI)

Doushi (Hiragana version)
Japanese verbs have many conjugated forms. There are quite some rules of the conjugation.
Even for Japanese this is very difficult....

Basic conjugation of Japanese verbs

"A I U E O" conjugation (5dan verbs). Rule: drop the final "u" and add what is in the columns... (execpt for the PAST TENSE)

Base
U
Negative
A + NAI
Formal Basic
I + MASU
When
U + TOKI
If
E + BA
Order
E
Let's
OU!
PAST TENSE
**TA/DA
ENGLISH
vowel: .a~ .i~ .u ~ .e~ .e .o~ DIFFERS to ...
asob u a nai i masu u toki e ba e ou! aso n da play
kak u a nai i masu u toki e ba e ou! ka i ta write/drow
yar u a nai i masu u toki e ba e ou! ya t ta do
yom u a nai i masu u toki e ba e ou! yo n da read
wara u *wa (not a) nai i masu u toki e ba e ou! wara t ta smile
Other "AIUEO" Conjugation hiraku - open, toru - take, hanasu - speak, tobu - fly/jump, tomaru - stop (intr), etc.  

How to conjugate PAST TENSE:

The end letter of
the BASE WORD
PAST TENSE EXAMPLE
U,TU,RU U --> t + ta au (meet) --> atta
tatsu (stand) --> tatta
taru (do) --> yatta
KU KU --> i + ta kaku (write) --> kaita
SU SU --> shi + ta kakusu (hide) --> kakushita
NU,MU,BU NU -->n + da shinu (die) --> shinda
nomu (drink)--> nonda
asobu (play) --> asonda
masu mashita au --> ai mashita, kaku --> kaki mashita
kakusu --> kakushi mashita, shinda --> shini mashita

"1 dan" conjugation. Rule: drop the final "ru" and add what is in the columns... (very easy, this one)

Base
ru
Negative
NAI
Formal Basic
MASU
When
xU + TOKI
If
xE + BA
Order
xO
Let's
YOU!
PAST TENSE ENGLISH
+ TA
mi ru nai masu ru toki re ba ro y ou! ta look/see
tabe ru nai masu ru toki re ba ro y ou! ta eat
ne ru nai masu ru toki re ba ro y ou! ta sleep
Other "1 dan" Conjugation tomeru - stop (trans.), iru - stay, nageru - throw, deru - go out of.., etc

"SA" conjugation

Base
U+RU
Negative
I+NAI
Formal Basic
I+MASU
When
URU + TOKI
If
URE + BA
Order
IRO
Let's
I+YOU!
PAST TENSE ENGLISH
s uru i nai i masu uru toki ure ba i ro i you! shita do
Other "SA" Conjugation Benkyou suru (study), Gaishutsu suru (go out), Denwa suru (make a phone call), etc

*"KA" conjugation

Base
U+RU
Negative
O+NAI
Formal Basic
I+MASU
When
URU + TOKI
If
URE + BA
Order
OI
Let's
--
PAST TENSE ENGLISH
k uru o nai i masu uru toki ure ba oi kita come


Negative PAST TENSE

POSITIVE NEGATIVE PRESENT NEGATIVE PAST EXAMPLE
-- nai nakatta asoba nakatta - I didn't play.
masu masen masen desita nemasen desita - I didn't sleep.

How to distinguish "1dan" conjugated verbs from "A I U E O" ones?

  taberu, okiru, nomu, hanasu,kangaeru, uru, miru, oku, tukuru WHICH ONE?
..e or ..i taberu, okiru, kangaeru, miru 1 dan conjugation
..A or ..U or ..O nomu, hanasu, uru, oku, tukuru AIUEO conjugation
EXCEPTION
..E or ..I
kiru - cut, hashiru - run, shiru - know, kaeru - go home, hairu - enter, heru - decrease, ...etc AIUEO conjugation


There are more conjugated forms. And there are some exception forms.